Pharmacological, Chemical, Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Profiles of Extracts and Bioactive Compounds from Selected Kenyan Ruellia Species

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author Wangia, Christine Ong’ayo
dc.date.accessioned 2021-06-03T09:07:57Z
dc.date.available 2021-06-03T09:07:57Z
dc.date.issued 2021-06-03
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost/xmlui/handle/123456789/5554
dc.description Doctor of Philosophy in Medicinal Phytochemistry en_US
dc.description.abstract The growing challenge of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) especially in developing world necessitates search for novel drugs that are not only efficacious but also affordable. Plants have traditionally provided a rich source of medicine, and therefore, there is a need to explore the untapped reservoir of medicinal plants for the management of NCDs. Ruellia (Acanthaceae) species are wild perennial creepers which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacological, chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic profiles of the bioactive compounds present in three Kenyan Ruellia species. The selected species viz. R. prostrata (RPM), R. bignoniiflora (RBK) and R. lineari-bracteolata (RLB), were studied with special emphasis to antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. Whole plant parts were collected from their natural habitats and both aqueous extracts (hot maceration) and organic extracts (cold maceration) were obtained. The acute toxicity study categorized the aqueous extract of R. prostrata to be in Category 5 (>2000-5000mg/kg) as per Globally Harmonised System. The sub-chronic toxicity studies revealed that the oral aqueous extract of R. prostrata (1000mg/kg per os) had no adverse effects on the internal organs, haematological parameters, and blood biochemistry in Wistar albino rats. The methanolic extract of RLB showed the highest antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)], scavenging activity, of IC50, 2.9±3.21 μg/mL, comparable to ascorbic acid standard (2.1±0.10 μg/mL). The aqueous extract of RPM showed the highest analgesic activity (Tail flick method) of ED50, 358.90±20.90 mg/kg. The aqueous extract of R. prostrata showed the highest anti- antinociceptive activity (Formalin test) in phase-1 (ED50 22.22±0.52 mg/kg), and phase-2 (ED50 7.07±4.10 mg/kg). The aqueous extract of RPM also showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (Carrageenan test) of ED50, 168.05±3.25 mg/kg. In vivo anti-arthritic studies (Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-induced arthritis) revealed no differences (p˃0.05) compared to the untreated control in hind paw swelling (mL), hind joint thickness (cm), arthritis score on a scale of 0-16, and inhibition of loss of grip strength (secs) as observed on a rotating rotarod. Aqueous extract of RPM did not suppress the bone marrow unlike methotrexate standard. Chemical profiling revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, and glycosides. No alkaloids were detected in all the three species. Fourier transform infra-red profiling revealed the presence of -OHstr, C-Hstr, C=Cstr and C-O-C linkages. Some of the compounds in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry profiling were β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, and triterpenes. 13-Docosenamide, (Z)-, l-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate, α-D-Glucopyranose, 4-O-. β -D-galactopyranosyl-, squalene, 9-Hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z), 9-Octadecenamide, (Z)-, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester. These compounds have been documented to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The present study concluded that extracts from Ruellia species studied possess antioxidant, analgesic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities, with the aqueous extract of RPM showing the highest activities, followed by the aqueous extract of RBK. This is the first scientific report regarding the efficacy of RPM in a rheumatoid arthritis animal model. The antioxidant, analgesic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of R. bignoniiflora and R. linear-bracteolata were reported for the first time. Some compounds identified from the selected Kenyan Ruellia species, such as flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, glycosides, terpenes, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol have been reported in other Ruellia species. The present study recommends that the bioactive compounds present in R. prostrata and R. bignoniiflora should undergo further pre- clinical studies as analgesic and anti-arthritic drugs in a non-human primate before use in man. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Prof. Patrick Kareru, Ph.D. JKUAT, Kenya. Dr. Eric Guantai, Ph.D. UoN, Kenya Prof. Jennifer Orwa, Ph.D. KEMRI, Kenya Prof. Francis Muregi, Ph.D. MKU, Kenya  en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher JKUAT-COHES en_US
dc.subject Kenyan Ruellia Species en_US
dc.subject Extracts and Bioactive Compounds en_US
dc.subject Spectroscopic Profiles en_US
dc.subject Chromatographic en_US
dc.subject Chemical en_US
dc.subject Pharmacological en_US
dc.title Pharmacological, Chemical, Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Profiles of Extracts and Bioactive Compounds from Selected Kenyan Ruellia Species en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

  • College of Health Sciences (COHES) [753]
    Medical Laboratory; Agriculture & environmental Biotecthology; Biochemistry; Molecular Medicine, Applied Epidemiology; Medicinal PhytochemistryPublic Health;

Show simple item record

Search DSpace


Browse

My Account